Public Law 83-280 (commonly referred to as Public Law 280 or P.L. 280)
Establishes criminal justice responsibilities among American Indian tribes with tribal land, the states in which tribes are located, and the federal government.
Public Law 280 is mandatory or optional for 204 tribes, about two-thirds of the total in the lower 48 states.
In states where P.L. 280 does not apply, the federal government retains criminal jurisdiction for major crimes committed under the Indian Country Crimes Act (Title 18, United States Code, Section 1152), the Indian Country Major Crimes Act (Title 18, United States Code, Section 1153), and the Assimilative Crimes Act (Title 18, United States Code, Section 13).